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No notes for slide. If you want to download this book, click link in the last page 5. You just clipped your first slide! Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. For example, reading activities, although present, is not a widely performed activity in Zambia, regardless of education level. Generally, reading and especially to children or to other people is not a culturally practised activity in many families.
Many Zambians practise reading for its functionality - filling out hospital forms, employment search in newspapers and school-related purposes Sampa This kind of reading may not nurture sharing of information especially with children because it is meant for self. The other reason for not finding reading activities as a predictor relates to the fact that many people shy away from reading.
Other People's Words: The Cycle of Low Literacy
A plausible explanation for shying away relates to the language. To many Zambians, English in which reading materials are written is a third or fourth language. As such, many people may lack confidence to read in the language - making the situation even worse for less educated parents. In addition, reading is difficult for many less educated parents. It was expected that language awareness would continue to impact vocabulary at the end of the year. Here, the children increased their social networks to include friends and teachers. These interactions seemingly impacted their oral language.
Other unexpected results that did predict literacy outcome was writing. An explanation for this finding could be that writing is secondary and comes after the very basic skills knowledge have been acquired. Thus, its activity may not be as emphasised early in the acquisition of literacy skills. Overall, the study reveals lower levels of literate experiences. This could be explained by low levels of parental educational attainment that may inhibit their exploration and level of participation in such activities. Parents may lack confidence in interacting with their children on such activities and place the responsibility of teaching their children on the school.
This may reduce the literacy interactions at home Chansa-Kabali et al. The other explanation may be that this study targeted the parents; it did not capture the role of siblings in helping the younger ones. In Africa, children are usually helped by their older siblings, cousins, other relations or neighbours who are more skilled. The focus on the parents may have not tapped into this important resource of other people within the developmental sphere of the child. These results are indicative of the activities that children in low-income families experience.
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Encouraging parents to conduct formal teaching activities in the homes appears to be more yielding. It is acknowledged that aspects of the home literacy environment are critical to the development of literacy skills; it is important for contexts like the one under examination to concentrate its strength.
For instance, variables like parental education, home possessions and reading materials are anchored on the alleviation of poverty. Because poverty is a reality that may not go away soon, this study proposes that parents should engage in activities that are easy and manageable but still make an impact. Similarly, reading activities require changing a number of things including historical patterns that have been created.
This too may take a longer time to achieve and requires massive sensitisation and awareness programmes. The advantage of encouraging teaching of letters is that most parents not only know letters of the alphabet but may also feel confident teaching them The conclusions of this study should be treated with caution owing to the fact that when children were in school, systematic teacher instruction was instituted and could have an impact on their literacy outcomes. The fact that Since teacher variables were not controlled for, it could be that at the end of the first grade, the teacher factors may have played a significant role in the achieved literacy outcomes.
Similarly, the small sample size may not produce confident conclusions.
As such, these results are only indicative and further studies should consider larger samples size including other socioeconomic classes and teacher variables. The author declares that she has no financial or personal relationships which may have inappropriately influenced her in writing this article. Akos, P. Alexander ed. Bruner, J. Burchinal, M. A meta-analysis on intergenerational transmission of literacy', Review of Educational Research 65, Hall, J. Marsh eds. Chaney, C.
Chen, C. Crosnoe, R. Evans, M. Sulzby eds. Gottfried, A. Brookes, Baltimore, MD. Heath, S. Stahl eds.
Magnuson, K. Korat eds. Merz, E. Marfo eds. Olson, R. Purcell-Gates, V. Rindermann, H. Scarborough, H. Grigorenko ed. Storch, S. Welsh, J.
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Correspondence : Tamara Chansa-Kabali tamarachansa yahoo. Evaluative comprehension occurs when readers judge the content of a text by comparing it with:. Evaluative language choices or attitudes are used in narratives to engage the reader through the expression of emotion, evaluation of qualities or judgment of behaviour.
The over-arching capacity of an individual to manage what they attend to and think about, and how they combine this new information with what they already know. From birth, the development of executive functioning is supported by positive and responsive interactions with significant people. It can be used to add colour or intensity to a description.
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For example, metaphors, similes and personification. A type of non-verbal communication in which body actions convey particular messages.
Gestures can occur with or without verbal communication. Gestures include movement of the hands, face, or other parts of the body. A grapheme is the technical term for a letter, for example, A, a, or a combination of two digraph , three trigraph , or four letters quadgraph. Graphic organisers are diagrams that organise thinking in different ways to assist with understanding and display of content.
Graphophonic cueing connects the sound of letters or words to the shape of letters or words.